Nagorno-Karabakh is a mountainous and forested land located within the territory of Azerbaijan, the former Soviet Republic.
According to international law, Nagorno-Karabakh is recognized as part of Azerbaijan, but the Armenian people, which make up the majority of the population, refuse to rule Azerbaijan. They have been carrying out their work with Armenian support since the Azerbaijani army was pushed out of the war in the 1990s.
In the late 1980s, in Nagorno-Karabakh, long-standing ethnic tensions arose in the region between Christian Armenians and their mostly Muslim neighbors.
The new battle that took place on September 27 has been the most lethal since the 1990s. The talks brokered by Russia signed a humanitarian ceasefire agreement from October 10th. The second armistice, brokered by Russia, failed.
A third armistice was agreed on Sunday, this time intermediated by the United States after US Secretary of State Mike Pompey and Armenian and Azerbaijani Foreign Ministers met separately in Washington.
However, hours after it took effect at 8 am local time on Monday (GMT 0400), both sides accused each other of violating the ceasefire.
The conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh risks attracting large regional powers of Russia and Turkey. Moscow has a defense alliance with Armenia, and Ankara supports the Turkic people of Azerbaijan.
In the 1980s, most of the decisions were made in Moscow, but its territory was within the borders of the Azerbaijani Republic of the then Soviet Union.
With the beginning of the dissolution of the Soviet Union, it became clear that Nagorno-Karabakh would come under direct rule of the Azeri government. The Armenian people did not accept it.
In 1991, a sectarian conflict arose between the Azerbaijani army and the ethnic Armenian army of Nagorno-Karabakh, supported by Armenia, which expanded into war. About 30,000 people died and more people migrated.
Authorities in Nagorno-Karabakh declared independence that year, but not internationally recognized, putting the Armenian national administration in a legal state with a blockade by the Azerbaijani government.
In 1994, when an internationally mediated ceasefire was agreed, the Armenian peoples controlled almost all Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding Azeri regions, providing buffer zones and viaducts connecting their regions with Armenia.
Azerbaijan pledged to use military power to re-seize its territory if necessary.
International efforts to find a lasting peace settlement, including France, the United States and Russia as mediators, have failed to reach negotiations.